I took a brief hiatus from my internal spelunking to look at how image creation might work. On IRC someone mentioned it’d be nice to have a Centos 5 image. Knowing a little about how anaconda and RPM work internally I thought it’d make a fun distraction. Let’s see what I discovered along the way.
So a basic clean docker setup, grab the Centos 6 Image.
$ docker run -i -t centos /bin/bash
I started looking at what they were using. I’m of the opinion that docker images should be minimal. The first thought was to see what the base image was made of in the Centos 6 image.
rpm -Va S.5....T. /sbin/init .M....... / .M....... /sys
If we remind ourself about
rpm verification from Maximum RPM. M is the file’s mode, the difference between a container and it’s outside host would impact that for
Let’s take a closer look at
init though, the environment is pretty minimal (no
FILE(1)) so let us exit then switch
docker ps -a ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS e30e657a24c1 centos:6.4 /bin/bash 8 minutes ago Exit 127
We know from last time where we expect the rootfs to be.
# cd /var/lib/docker/containers/e30e657a24c1* # echo $PWD /var/lib/docker/containers/e30e657a24c192694d06a41c4e201576a52d59596aa364ac7aa375d8c2696f09
Lets take a look at the dir again
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 854 Aug 27 01:17 config.json -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3570 Aug 27 01:08 config.lxc -rw------- 1 root root 13545 Aug 27 01:17 e30e657a24c192694d06a41c4e201576a52d59596aa364ac7aa375d8c2696f09-json.log -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 35 Aug 27 01:08 hostconfig.json -rw------- 1 root root 0 Aug 27 01:08 rootfs.hold drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Aug 27 01:17 rw
So this time we don’t see the
rootfs dir but we do see an
rw dir - lets look in that.
# find rw rw rw/.wh..wh.plnk rw/var rw/var/lib rw/var/lib/rpm rw/var/lib/rpm/__db.002 rw/var/lib/rpm/__db.003 rw/var/lib/rpm/__db.004 rw/var/lib/rpm/__db.001 rw/.bash_history rw/.wh..wh.aufs rw/.wh..wh.orph
So we’re starting to find out about aufs here - this is an incremental change - the Berkeley DB region (the
__db.* files), the
.bash_history files we expect to have changes and be the delta. The
.wh..wh.* files are interesting though. This is our first insight into how aufs is working under the hood.
So we know it’s an overlay based filesystem so we expect a delta clearly there is some metadata here too:
find . -name .wh\* | xargs file ./rw/.wh..wh.plnk: directory ./rw/.wh..wh.aufs: empty ./rw/.wh..wh.orph: directory
To find out more we can try figure out more information.
modinfo aufs filename: /lib/modules/3.8.0-19-generic/kernel/ubuntu/aufs/aufs.ko version: 3.x-rcN-20121112 description: aufs -- Advanced multi layered unification filesystem author: Junjiro R. Okajima <firstname.lastname@example.org> license: GPL srcversion: 24B5792563ECCFC0A3F445B depends: intree: Y vermagic: 3.8.0-19-generic SMP mod_unload modversions parm: brs:use <sysfs>/fs/aufs/si_*/brN (int)
So lets figure out where the kmod comes from:
dpkg -S /lib/modules/3.8.0-19-generic/kernel/ubuntu/aufs/aufs.ko linux-image-3.8.0-19-generic: /lib/modules/3.8.0-19-generic/kernel/ubuntu/aufs/aufs.ko
OK so we have a package name - I’m not a dpkg expert but I think we can do:
dpkg -s linux-image-3.8.0-19-generic | grep Source Source: linux-lts-raring
I’m not quite up to date so have to go get the appropriate bits via http://packages.ubuntu.com/raring/linux-image-3.8.0-19-generic and eventually do
dpkg-source -x linux_3.8.0-29.42.dsc. A bit of poking around and we can find in
#define AUFS_PLINKDIR_NAME AUFS_WH_PFX "plnk" #define AUFS_ORPHDIR_NAME AUFS_WH_PFX "orph"
./ubuntu/aufs/whout.c there is a lot of interest here just reading the comments
grep todo ./ubuntu/aufs/whout.c /* todo: should this mkdir be done in /sbin/mount.aufs helper? */ * todo: should this create be done in /sbin/mount.aufs helper?
I think there is quite a lot of further digging to be done in the internals here.